article “Reciprocal Control in Adaptive Architecture”


iwcThis article has now made it into the journal “Interacting with Computers” The submission and revision process was long but the result is worth it.

We present results of an experimental study showing that embodied control can work reciprocally between adaptive architecture ant its inhabitants.

Reciprocal Control in Adaptive Architecture

Nils Jäger, Holger Schädelbach, Jonathan Hale, David Kirk, Kevin Glover
Interacting with Computers, 2017, First published online: January 13, 2017
doi: 10.1093/iwc/iww037

link: Full Text PDF

“Computing has become an established part of the built environment augmenting it to become adaptive. We generally assume that we control the adaptive environments we inhabit. Using an existing adaptive environment prototype, we conducted a controlled study testing how the reversal of control (where the environment attempts to influence the behaviour of the inhabitant) would affect participants. Most participants changed their respiratory behaviour in accordance with this environmental manipulation. Behavioural change occurred either consciously or unconsciously. We explain the two different paths leading participants to behavioural change: (i) we adapt the model of interbodily resonance, a process of bodily interaction observable between, for example, partners engaged in verbal dialogue, to describe the unconscious bodily response to subtle changes in the environment and (ii) we apply the model of secondary control, an adjustment of one’s own expectations to maintain the pretence of control, to describe conscious cognitive adaptation to the changing environment. We also discuss potential applications of our findings in therapeutic and other settings.”


Nils Jäger, Holger Schnadelbach, Jonathan Hale, David Kirk, Kevin Glover. 2016. Reciprocal Control in Adaptive Environments. Interacting with Computers, First published online: January 13, 2017

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